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Tuesday, November 13, 2012

Energy Saving in Industrial Processes Using Modern Data Acquisition


One of the most effective industrial processes improving technologies are model predictive control, neuron networks, and soft sensors technologies. Technologically advanced manufacturing companies, which use innovative processes management and monitoring systems, achieve 20-30% lower production costs than those of similar plants in which such systems are not used. The idea of this work is to evaluate the potential of cognitive industrial processes management systems in order to optimize the company's activities in increasing energy efficiency and resource conservation. For this purpose are used advanced methods of data analysis and collection, monitoring, control systems.

Process optimization contains following steps:
Data aquision can be realized using different techniques. The most used method for data aquision is to use hardware sensors. This is the simplest way to monitor process if there is no any monitoring system. If data aquision system (example SCADA) is already installed, it is possible to use SCADA acquired data or, if SCADA does not collect all required data, it is possible to combine SCADA acquired data with data collected with additional sensors.

Aquised data usually needs to be transferred for further processing. There are two major kinds of data transfer types: wired, wireless and software. Usually data transfer speed is not important for aquision systems, because there is no large amount of data involved. Wire and wireless data transfer is used to transfer data from hardware sensors. Both raw and processed data can be transferred for collection. It is possible to use different types of data transfer methods in one system. Software links are used to collect data from other, already installed systems, such as SCADA, using standard data transfer protocols, such as OPC and DATA socket.

For data processing mostly standard data processing software is used. The most popular software is MatLab, other software solutions are Profisignal, LabView and custom made software created for specific task.

There are 2 main algorithm types to control complex systems.
1. Model predictive control.
2. Advanced process control.

Model predictive control (MPC) systems gathers information about process, learns typical sequence of changing parameters, predicts them, and changes system parameters in order to keep system output smooth. MPC are used in systems that monitor and controls few variables.

Advanced process control (APC) controls complex processes with many monitored variables and controlled outputs. Compared to MPC, APC involves much more data processing.

In this paper we improve efficiency of industrial processes in pulp paper manufacturer by improving compressed air system in product packing line. This system contains 3 air compressors and 217 users (actuators, valves etc.). Pressure in system is set to be between 6,5 and 7,9 bar. Average pressure in the system - 7,2 bar. Pressure deviation in system is ± 0,7 bar. The most pressure demanding users require air pressure of 6 bar.

Efficiency improving contains the following steps:
1. Analyzing existing system.
2. Monitor compressed air system using data logger.
3. Analyzing data from data logger.
4. Upgrading compressed air system with additional controllers, sensors (if necessary), and creating APC.
5. Creating algorithm for APC.

for temporary industrial processes monitoring. Collected data is used to find weak points in compressed air system make a necessary system upgrades list and create efficient control algorithm for controller that will be installed in next stage. Test results showed that all system output was averaging at 39,2% of its maximum productivity.

Pressures in system above 6 bars are unnecessarily high. It increases amount of leaked air from system, pneumatic system components wear and energy consumption.

To improve compressed air system the following improvements were made:
1. Install to system APC controller.
2. Pressure and flow sensors installation.
3. Air compressors controllers installation.

Installing APC controller to compressed air system will give more flexibility of controlling all system parameters and increase efficiently.

In the original system air compressors had no direct control, they could be only turned on at 100% output or off. We added to system controllers that can make air compressor work between 20%-100% of total output. This update will increase control flexibility and efficiency of compressed air system.

For first upgraded system test run controller and added sensors were enabled, compressed air pump controllers were disabled, system pressure was set to be at 7,2 bar with possible variations of ± 0,1 bar, so deviation is 7 times lower than in original system, while target of system pressure left the same as in base setup. System performed well and compared to original system, 2,1% electricity savings were achieved.

On the second test run air compressor controllers were enabled, system pressure set to be 6,25 bar with deviation of ±0,1 bar. Test results are very stable and with power savings of 15,1 % compared with original system.

Completed system is very compact. It is estimated that various system components lifetime will increase by 5-10 %. System using APC controller will save 15 % energy and 5-10 % in hardware wear. Allso APC systems can be maintained remotely so they save money on servicing costs. Total system savings are at least 25 %. Designed and installed APC system will buy of in less than 6 months.

Company INOBALT specializes in test and measurement systems and equipments for industrial use. Our product range covers everything from transducer to the full size production tests solutions. We design and manufacture customized test and measurement systems. Our services include automation design, manufacturing and commissioning. INOBALT's measurement solutions are mainly used in product development, research and maintenance. INOBALT has a wide selection of devices from transducer to the high-end analyzers. Typical measurable values are temperature, vibration, pressure, rotation, force, torque, strain and noise. Systems are widely used in vehicle- and defense industry, universities, research institutes, electronics and in machine building applications.

For more information please see: http://www.inobalt.com

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Rolandas_Obsta

Monday, September 24, 2012

Benefits of Compressed Air Tools

The trouble with hand tools is battery life. Good, but unless you have at least two spare batteries in rotation, you are not going to use them effectively or efficiently.

The trouble with power tools is safety. On site the plethora of cables is always an issue and at home, many a sturdy DIYer has been taken by surprise at just how powerful a power tool can be.

So what else is there?

Air tools, that's the answer. Tools that use compressed air as their power source. Tools that do not wrap the site in cables, or pose health hazards through overheating and frayed cables, tools that provide the same level of power and efficiency every time you need them.

Safe, compliant, and easy to use, compresses air equipment tools meet all you're on site or at home requirements.

And whatever you are doing, there is a compresses air equipment tool that meets your needs. If you need high power for your workshop, then there is a range of industrial lubricated and non-lubricated compressors available for the task. These systems will help with everything from tyre changing machines in a mechanics shop through to compressing oxygen for scuba tanks or hydrogen and other gases for chemical storage work.

Save space on site with a portable compressor that can power multiple tools at the same time at pressures from 7 to 24 bar (101 to 350 psi). These compressors can power a whole range of contractor tools from rock drilling equipment through paving and concrete breakers to backfill rammers and internal concrete vibrators.

And then there is a whole plethora of standard site and home tools that can be powered by compressed air. Everything from portable drills and grinders through nibblers, routers and saws and onto impact wrenches, riveting hammers and screwdrivers.

Whatever the job and, more importantly, whatever the size of the job, there is a compressed air equipment tool that meets the requirements and, just as importantly, the health and safety specification, of the job at hand. And, of course, you don't need to plug the compressor in, it runs from its own engines - perfect for situations where there is no electrical power on site.

And the uses spread far beyond the construction and DIY industries. There are compressed air tools that will work in the mining, chemical and plastics industries, as well as well as arenas such as agriculture, health, food and environmental. Literally whatever you want to do, compressed air tools will help you to do it.

Michael P Richards is writing on behalf of Excel Compressors, specialists in Compressed Air Equipment

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Michael_P_Richards

Saturday, June 2, 2012

Beginning of Air Compressors


The first air compressors created were not machines, like many people may think. In fact they were actually people themselves. Humans used their lungs to blow oxygen onto fires, thus creating the first air compressors. The air compressors we know today are both stronger and more efficient. A healthy pair of human lungs can produce.02 to.08 bar, where one bar equals 14.5 pounds per square inch. Around 3,000 BC metallurgy had made its day view, and humans had turned over a new leaf in air compressors.

As metals were melted down, higher temperatures were needed, which lead to a need for more powerful compressors. Hand held bellows were soon created and in the 1,500 BC era foot bellows began to be produced. For 2,000 years bellows driven by foot were the primary choice when it came to compressed air. Soon blast furnaces were developed, which lead to John Smeaton's design of a water wheel-driven blowing cylinder in 1762. Hand held and foot operated bellows become obsolete, and the new Smeaton design was the blower system of choice.

Later inventor John Wilkinson came into the picture and created a much more efficient blasting machine. Invented in England during the year 1776, this new machine was an early prototype for all the mechanical compressors to come. Many of these new air compressors were used in mining and tunnel building. Particularly in the 1857 construction of the tunnel rail system that connected Italy to France. They were able to move large volumes of fresh air in to the tunnels for ventilation.

As word of tunnel development with compressed air machines spread international intrigue was sparked. Inventors soon realized compressed air could be used in many more industries than just mining. Leading this advance was Austrian engineer Viktor Popp, who created compressor plant in Paris. In 1888 Mr. Popp installed a 1,500 kW compressor plant and by the year 1891 the plant had grown to 18,000 kW.

As years passed more and more patents were handed out to inventors who were tweaking the designs of the original machines. Soon compressed air machines were being used in a number of different applications all around the world. Their versatility, reliability, and all around usability make them popular among many industries. Frequently air compressors are used in combination with hydraulics and electricity. The two compliment each other and have changed the way compressed air is used in industries around the world.

Nick Jakubowski

http://www.arizonapneumatic.com
http://www.nevadapneumatic.com

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Nick_S_Jakubowski

Saturday, May 19, 2012

How Does an Air Compressor Work?


Air compressors are essential mechanical equipment for homeowners (air conditioners and refrigerators), commercial businesses, jet engines, refining industries, manufacturing and automotive industries. In reality, air compressors have been utilized in industries in more than a century. It is a multi-talented device utilized to supply the compressed air and/or power in a specified space. It is being used in any purpose which requires air in decreased volume or increased force.

They are are obtainable in several types, which are produced to meet dissimilar requirements. Each type may vary in chilling method, compression stages, power source and lubrication. The following are three main types of air compressors:

Reciprocating (Piston) Air Compressor - uses piston in compressing air and keeping in storage tank. Based on the quantity of compression stages, this type may be single-stage or double-stage. In a single stage, one piston is utilized in compressing air, whereas in the double-stage, there are two pistons used in air compression.


Rotary Air Compressor - this is the same as the positive displacement configuration of reciprocating compressor. In this type, two rotating helical mated bolts are being used rather than pistons. Since the screws rotate towards one another, air is compacted and pushed in the storage tank.

Centrifugal Air Compressor - also called dynamic compressor is appropriate when the need for compacted air is high. In this type, high speed spinning impeller increases speed of air, which is intended towards a diffuser which converts the speed of air into force. This compressor needs more energy to manipulate than the two compressors.
The device consists of two main components - the compressing mechanism and power source. The compressing device may be piston, vane or rotating impeller, whereas, the power comes from the electric motor or some other sources of energy. The compressing mechanism, aids in compacting atmospheric air by means of energy from the source of power.

The fundamental working principle of air compressor is to compact atmospheric air, which is utilized as needed. In the course, atmospheric air draws in by intake valve; more air is pulled in a narrow space automatically by piston, vane or impeller. Since the quantity of pulled atmospheric air is added in the storage tank, the pressure is automatically raised. In simpler language, atmospheric or free air is packed together after decreasing its volume and increasing its force in same period of time. There is force setting handle which can be maneuvered per requirement of the operator. When the force increases to

Highest force setting in the tank or receiver, the pressure button shuts up the intakes of air into the compressor. When the compacted air is utilized, the level of the pressure falls. As the force drops to a low down pressure setting, the force button is switched on, hence permitting the intake air in the atmosphere. Thus, the sequence continues in the air compressor.

Air Compressor is consists of two main components - the compressing mechanism and power source. For more Info, visit us at: http://AirCompressor.org/

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Victoria_Sallador

Saturday, May 12, 2012

Compressed Air Can - Why Do You Need It?


Modern time is the time of electronic appliances and gadgets. In order to assure their long term use, they should not only be used with much care but also be cleaned in the best way to guarantee permanent usage. Compressed air can is a can that is used to remove the dust and dirt which settles down into closed and open areas of any type of machines and devices. The can contains gasses which have been compressed in a way that they turn into liquid. The liquid, then comes out of the can which has a nozzle to permit it passing out, and reaches out even for the hard to reach places to clean the surface of electric appliances.

It is an ideal choice to clean your equipment with cans rather than with water. Most of this electric equipment is so sensitive that if cleaned by using water, they can damage the tools and equipment. Most of these cans are available in packages which include several accessories such as refill, which will match the size of the can you are buying, nozzles and disposable dusters. Make sure that the dusters you are receiving with your purchase should have durable valves. In order to save your environment, make sure that 100% ozone friendly cans are bought and used by you.

Ideally, valves that come with the cans should rotate as much as to 360 degree at all the sides. This will assure that you can spray on all the hard to reach areas and even small hidden corners that otherwise go neglected. A nozzle is also must to check when buying your can. The nozzle will help you to spray easily to all the corners. Valves are removable in some cases while in some others they may not be. If they are removable, it is better because you can change them according to your needs and purpose. Old valves will always be needed to remove because they will be jammed at some point of use with stuck gasses in the middle, in that case a valve change will be required for sure.

You can read more reviews at compressedaircan.net, If you want to buy coleman air compressor, you can read reviews at my website.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Leona_J._Crockett

Saturday, May 5, 2012

The Use of Compressed Air in Industry


Although it is perhaps not one of the better known 'tools of the trade', it may come as a surprise to many people, how wide the use of the industrial air compressor is in a wide variety of industries.

From the health sector to mining, industrial air compressors are playing an increasingly important role in industry. Whilst this may surprise some, there are a good many reasons why this is the case.

Compressed air is easy to store and is usually contained in large tanks, taking up little room in a factory or yard. Compressed air can be especially useful, and important, in an environment that is potentially hazardous; a good example of this is in the mining industry, where the use of electrical machinery could ignite explosive gases, causing injury or even loss of life. As they expel only pure compressed air, there are no toxic fumes or other chemicals to be concerned about either, which is one of the more obvious appeals to the health sector.

Before buying an industrial air compressor, it is important to consider your actual needs, as buying too large a compressor can be an expensive move. There are a wide variety of sizes to choose from so you should select the one most appropriate to your industry, bearing in mind the amount of usage it will get.

We have covered a few examples above, of industries in which compressed air may be used, but in general terms only. Below are a few examples of actual uses of compressed air which will help to emphasise the important role it has to play in many different types of industry.

Construction
Compressed air is used for many on site demolition tools and also for compacting concrete. It is also often used to convey bricks and stones from factories.

Mining
Industrial air compressors are used to power drilling machinery such as industrial sized hammers and chisels. It is also used in the mining ventilation system, an obviously important aspect of the industry.

Agriculture
Compressed air is often used to transport food and grain to the silos, in which it is stored, and also provides ventilation in industrial glasshouses.

Health Industry
Many of us will be familiar with the sound of the dentist's drill; a good example of its use in the dentistry trade. It is also used in hospitals for the extraction of anaesthetic gases and also respiration systems.

Traffic Industry
Most of us will probably be aware of the role that compressed air plays in heavy goods vehicle brakes, but it is also widely used in signal systems and rail barriers too.

Micheal Richards is writing on behalf of Excel Compressors, specialists in Compressed Air Equipment and Industrial Air Compressors.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Michael_P_Richards
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6891840

Saturday, April 28, 2012

Understanding Compressed Air Systems

In this day and age, it's difficult to find a manufacturing or construction business that does not use industrial compressors regularly in their daily routine. The key advantage of air compressors is that they can take the potential energy that builds up when a gas such as atmospheric air is placed under pressure and quickly convert it to kinetic energy. That energy can be used to drive small power tools such as impact wrenches or nail guns. Larger compressors are used in manufacturing when a large amount of torque needs to be applied. Most importantly, compressors are quite reliable and don't require extensive maintenance.

Basic Components of Compressors
compressors are similar to small internal combustion engines since they consist of a piston, a cylinder, and a connecting rod that is attached to a crankshaft. The crankshaft is driven externally, either by an electric or gas motor to rotate the shaft and move the piston up or down. The top of the piston cylinder has a valve head with two ports to control air flow into and out of the internal chamber. Each port contains a valve flap that can be open or closed. Usually, a holding tank is attached to the compressor to maintain air pressure within the tank to a pre-set level.

Generating Air Pressure
An inlet in one port allows outside air under atmospheric pressure to enter. When the piston moves down, a vacuum is created in the cylinder which opens a valve flap and allows air to enter the piston cylinder. When the piston cycles up, it compresses the air in the cylinder. This closes the inlet flap, while at the same time opening the discharge flap. When the discharge flap is opened, it propels air into the external air tank. With each piston cycle more air enters the tank, building up pressure within it. The air tank is fitted with a gauge apparatus that turns the motor on or off to maintain a safe pressure.

Primary Applications and Uses
Many manufacturing plants use air compressors in automation and packaging equipment as well as conveyor lines and pneumatic presses. Most mechanical robots on assembly lines use compressors to place parts and weld them together. Some manufacturers use compressed gases for processing operations such as oxidation, filtration, aeration, or refrigeration. The food and beverage industry uses compressors for bottling and vacuum packaging of food items. The construction industry uses air compressors to drive tools such as jack hammers and pneumatic drills. Regardless of their specific application, all industrial compressors maximise power efficiency and reduce costs.

Mithul Mistry is writing on behalf of Excel Compressors, specialists in Bambi Air Compressors and Used Air Compressors.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Mithul_Mistry
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6848565

Friday, March 30, 2012

Compressed Air Safety For Employees


To ensure compressed air safety when personnel are handling compressed air cylinders in the workplace (or in fact at home) all components of compressed air systems should be inspected regularly by qualified and trained employees. Operators carrying out the safety tests should individually take note of: the air receivers, the air distributions lines, the pressure regulation devices, the compressor operation and compressed Air Equipment Maintenance.

Compressed air safety should be taken very seriously due to the fact that a compressed gas cylinder accident can be fatal for personnel. While it is perfectly safe to work with if the operator knows what they are doing, it can conversely be very dangerous if handled by someone who has not had the correct training or is not furnished with sufficient information.

In order to guard against accidents in the workplace and to ensure a happy and healthy working environment, following are typical safety considerations that should be observed:

Compressed air should never be used to clean off clothes, workbenches, cabs of work vehicles, air filters or workshop floors. It is not a toy and can cause grievous bodily harm and operators messing around with the it without due consideration and using the air for games should not be tolerated ever. Compressed air should never be aimed or pointed at another person. When disconnecting airlines, turn off the air (never kink the hose) and bleed off the air gradually and aim the stream away from people.

Compressors and air powered tools require regular inspection and maintenance, including: daily checks for oil leaks and correct fitting of guards; daily checks of tools for damage to hoses and dirty, inoperable or damaged fittings and connections; verification of correct operation of pressure relief valves; periodic inspection of the pressure vessels (as prescribed in state legislation)

Storage of the air hose is also very important in compressed gas cylinder safety. The air hoses should be kept off the floor, where they pose a trip hazard and can potentially be damaged by regular foot traffic, dropped tools and heavy trucks rolling over it. Keep sharp tools away from the air hose as much as possible. Coil the air hose sensibly without kinks and hang it over a broad support, not over a hook, nail, or angle iron, when not in use. To avoid potential physical damage, use the lowest pressure that will do the job. Air pressure in excess of 30 lbs. can penetrate the skin to cause massive internal damage, it can burst internal organs, it can blow an eye from its socket and/ or rupture an ear drum (these are just a few of the unfortunate potential consequences when very high air pressure is mishandled).

Due to the above points made, MlOSHA's General Provisions Standard for compressed air safety which states "air pressure at the discharge end of a portable air blow gun or portable air hose should be less than 30 lbs. per square inch gauge when dead-ended," should be observed unless under very specific circumstances. Remember to keep these safety measures in mind the next time you work with it.

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